What is an Echocardiogram and How does it work?

Patient Awareness

Doctors use echocardiograms to identify heart issues like damaged tissue, chamber enlargement, muscle stiffening, blood clots, fluid around the heart, and valve problems.

Dec 27
Dr Sandip Patel
Founder & CEO, Docthub
What is an Echocardiogram and How does it work?

This blog breaks down the meaning of echocardiogram tests, what an echocardiogram diagnoses, and how it works.


What is an Echocardiogram?

An echocardiogram, or echo, is like a visual snapshot of your heart in action. Your healthcare provider uses a handheld device on your chest that emits high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to capture images of your heart's valves and chambers. This test helps assess how well your heart pumps. 

By incorporating Doppler ultrasound and color Doppler techniques, providers can also examine blood flow through your heart's valves. Unlike X-rays and CT scans, echocardiograms don't involve radiation, making them a safe and effective way to check on your heart's health. 

If you're considering an echocardiogram test for heart evaluation, rest assured it uses no radiation.


Types of Echocardiogram

Echocardiograms come in various types tailored to the specific information your healthcare provider needs:

  • Transthoracic Echocardiogram (TTE): Also known as a heart ultrasound, this noninvasive standard echocardiogram captures images of blood flow through the heart and its valves. Contrast dye may be used intravenously to enhance visibility.
  • Transesophageal Echocardiogram (TEE): When more detailed insights are required, a TEE is performed. This test offers a close-up view of the heart and the aorta. Images are taken from inside the body, often focusing on the aortic valve.
  • Fetal Echocardiogram: Conducted during pregnancy, this noninvasive test examines the baby's heart using an ultrasound wand over the pregnant person's belly, avoiding surgery or X-rays.
  • Stress Echocardiogram: Administered before and after exercise, this test assesses how the heart responds to physical activity or stress. It's ordered to evaluate coronary artery disease, and if exercise is challenging, medication may be used to simulate increased heart activity.

These specialized echocardiograms, including transthoracic echocardiogramechocardiogram of fetal, and fetal echocardiogram, serve distinct diagnostic purposes.


What does an Echocardiogram diagnose?

  • An echocardiogram procedure is a diagnostic procedure used by doctors to assess various aspects of the heart, helping in the identification and understanding of heart problems. It helps diagnose:
     Heart Attack: The procedure checks for signs of impaired blood supply, wall abnormalities, and blood flow, indicating a possible heart attack.
  • Blood Clots or Tumors: Echocardiograms serve as a noninvasive tool to detect blood clots and cardiac masses such as tumors.
  • Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): While not showing blockages directly, it helps identify issues affecting the heart's pumping ability and wall motion, especially during stress.
  • Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection: Echocardiograms screen for a wide aorta, unruptured aneurysms, and potential complications in the vessel.
  • Cardiomyopathy: Assessing the size and function of the heart, it correlates with various heart conditions, including weak heart muscles and heart failure.
  • Pulmonary Hypertension: Evaluating pressure in the heart, it aids in detecting pulmonary hypertension, guiding further diagnostic steps.
  • Congenital Heart Disease: Identifying abnormalities in infants, such as septal defects and holes.
  • Heart Valve Disease: Looking for irregularities in blood flow, leakage, and blockage in heart valves.
  • Pericardium Problems: Checking the sac surrounding the heart for inflammation or fluid accumulation.
  • Heart Failure: Detecting signs of weak or stiffened heart muscles, indicative of heart failure.

Doctors also use echocardiograms to understand abnormal results from an electrocardiogram (EKG) and monitor heart responses to various treatments. If someone shows signs like 

  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Abnormal blood pressure
  • Leg swelling
  • Unusual sounds between heartbeats


What Techniques are used in Echocardiogram?

Echocardiography uses various techniques to capture images of your heart, tailored to your specific condition. These methods include:

  • Two-dimensional (2D) Ultrasound:  Commonly used, it produces 2D echocardiogram images resembling slices on a screen, which can be stacked to create a 3D structure.
  • Three-dimensional (3D) Ultrasound: Technological advances have enhanced 3D imaging, providing a more accurate portrayal of your heart's pumping function and allowing different angles for examination.
  • Doppler Ultrasound: This technique reveals the speed and direction of blood flow in your heart.
  • Color Doppler Ultrasound: Similar to Doppler, it uses colors to highlight different directions of blood flow.
  • Strain Imaging: This method detects changes in how your heart muscle moves, identifying early signs of certain heart conditions.
  • Contrast Imaging: Involving the injection of a contrast agent into a vein, this technique enhances image details. While some may experience mild allergic reactions, it aids in showcasing specific aspects of your heart.


How does an Echocardiogram work?

An echocardiogram, or echo, works by using ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) to create images of the heart's structures. 

During the test, a healthcare provider places a wand-like device on the chest, emitting sound waves that bounce off the heart's walls and valves. These reflected waves are then translated into visual images, showing the heart's size, shape, and movement. Doppler ultrasound may be added to assess blood flow. 

Echocardiograms help diagnose heart conditions, offering a non-invasive and radiation-free method to evaluate heart health, guide further testing, and monitor changes over time.

By capturing images of the heart's structure, size, and function, these noninvasive tests aid in diagnosing a range of heart conditions. Whether assessing blood flow, identifying abnormalities, or monitoring treatment responses, echocardiograms play a crucial role. 

For those considering an echocardiogram for heart evaluation, rest assured that it involves no radiation. It's a safe and effective diagnostic tool, although the echocardiogram cost or echo test price may vary.



Find more healthcare industry information on Docthub.



1.What is an echocardiogram?

An echocardiogram, commonly known as an echo, is a medical imaging procedure that utilizes ultrasound to create detailed images of the heart's structures.


2. What is an echocardiogram test?

An echocardiogram test is a non-invasive medical examination employing ultrasound technology to generate images of the heart, aiding in the evaluation of its functionality, size, and identification of potential cardiac issues.

3. How long is an echocardiogram?

An echocardiogram usually lasts around 30 to 60 minutes.


4. Who needs an echocardiogram?

An echocardiogram is recommended for people who show symptoms or conditions suggesting potential heart issues.


5. Is echocardiogram same as ECG?

An echocardiogram (echo) and an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) are different tests; while an echo captures images of the heart's structures using ultrasound, an ECG records the heart's electrical activity.